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Thursday, June 13, 2002
YAMAHA talks about Full CAV vs. Zone-CLV

Yamaha Electronics Corporation has remained at the top of the CD recording industry by consistently introducing innovative technology that commands attention. The adaptation of the Full-CAV (Full Constant Angular Velocity) recording method for the new CRW-F1 is another example of the Yamaha’s dedication to deliver premium technology to the consumer. This new recording method raises the quality standard and is just one more piece to the puzzle that explains why the CRW-F1 is the Ultimate CD Recorder!

Utilizing the Full-CAV recording technology, Yamaha CRW-F1 is able to write a full 80-minute CD-R disc in just 163 seconds. Full-CAV delivers impeccable quality, playback reliability with a longer life expectancy and is faster than any 48X CD-Recorder using the conventional Zone-CLV speed shifting technology.

“Quality has always been a defining trait of Yamaha. With that in mind, the decision to implement the Full-CAV technology was easy.” states Allen H. Gharapetian, general manager, Yamaha Multimedia Products Division. “Unlike the Zone-CLV CD recorders, Full-CAV technology allows the CRW-F1 to increase speed in a smooth, steady manner rather than going through sudden speed shifts during recording that could cause unconditional forced write errors on a CD every time the speed jumps occur.”


The Full-CAV recording method is identical to the way a conventional CD-Rom reads data, which rotates at a constant speed no matter where the data is located on the disc. Yamaha’s efficient use of Full-CAV technology allows writing to increase at a smooth and consistent rate until it achieves full speed. Yamaha’s exclusive OWSC (Optimum Write Speed Control) adjusts to the maximum recording speed of the blank CDR.


Other high speed CD-RW manufacturers are using the “Zone-CLV (Constant Linear Velocity)” method which “jumps” in recording speed, greatly compromising the integrity of the recorded data on the disc and substantially increasing the likelihood of encountering critical errors while making the links between each speed zone. The Zone-CLV recording method relies on competitor’s buffer underrun protection in order to create the link between the speed zones. Each time the buffer management system is activated, an error is introduced on the CD. Over time, these errors can compromise the reliability of the recorded CD. Without the speed shifts and the required links, a Zone-CLV equipped recorder cannot reach its maximum write speed.

Full-CAV vs. Zone-CLV

Disc rotation plays an important part in understanding the benefits of Full-CAV over Zone-CLV. Research has shown that as recording speed increases, it becomes more difficult to maintain the integrity of data. This is due to the increased vibration that results from spinning the CD at ultra high speeds. In the current Yamaha implementation of the Full-CAV method, the rotation speed is kept at a constant 8700 rpm throughout the full CD. In addition, to ensure the best writing quality, Yamaha has developed a unique Dynamic Damper designed to counteract vibration and noise. Compare this with the Z-CLV method where the disc can spin at over 10,000 rpm in the inner portion of the disc and, because of the inherent variations in the rotation speeds, there is no possibility to counteract the vibration and noise. Full-CAV’s constant disc rotation helps towards achieving an improved recording quality across the entire surface of the disc.

Zone-CLV divides the writing of a disc into several zones, with the writing speed kept constant within each zone. When it shifts up to the next speed level, writing is suspended and then restarted using the buffer underrun protection, causing errors to be introduced to the CD at each link point. Full-CAV is the ideal technology for high-speed recording because writing is completed smoothly and no link points are produced.

“Achieving faster CD writing speeds—while maintaining maximum reliability—has always been a necessity for Yamaha, especially for the growing number of users who understand that the quality of any data or audio recording outweighs the potential benefits of shaving off a few seconds during recording,” states Gharapetian. “Our research has found that the Full-CAV technology utilized in our CRW-F1 drives is superior to other high speed drives which rely on ‘Zone CLV’ writing methods, resulting in more stable, high-quality CD recording.”

For more information, visit where eight press releases will unfold to tell Yamaha CRW-F1’s story. Full-CAV is the fourth installment; the remaining four releases will be posted every Monday and Thursday for the next two weeks. Each release will detail a different outstanding feature of the industry’s finest CD-R series and show why the CRW-F1 is The Ultimate CD Recorder.

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